London Bridge attacker Usman Khan attended two counter-terrorism programmes that had not been fully tested to see if they were effective, BBC News has discovered.
Khan, who was convicted of a terrorism offence in 2012, killed Jack Merritt, 25, and Saskia Jones, 23, on Friday.
He had completed two rehabilitation schemes during the eight years he spent in prison and following his release.
The government says such programmes are kept “under constant review”.
Three others were injured after Khan launched the attack at a prisoner rehabilitation event inside Fishmongers’ Hall near London Bridge.
Inquests into the deaths of Mr Merritt and Ms Jones were opened and adjourned at the Old Bailey on Wednesday.
The court heard that both of them died after being stabbed in the chest. The date for the full inquests is still to be decided.
During his time in prison, Khan completed a course for people convicted of extremism offences and after his release went on a scheme to address the root causes of terrorism.
The first course Khan went on, the Healthy Identity Intervention Programme, was piloted from 2010 and is now the main rehabilitation scheme for prisoners convicted of offences linked to extremism.
Last year, the Ministry of Justice published the findings of research into the pilot project which found it was “viewed positively” by a sample of those who attended and ran the course.
However, the department has not completed any work to test whether the scheme prevents reoffending or successfully tackles extremist behaviour.
There has also been no evaluation of the impact of the Desistance and Disengagement Programme, which Khan took part in after his release last year.
Government officials pointed out that the schemes have not been operating for long enough for the results to be assessed, but a spokesperson said all offender behaviour programmes were kept under constant review.
The spokesperson said: “All our offender behaviour programmes are monitored, evaluated and kept under constant review to ensure that they are effective in reducing reoffending and protecting the public.”
The Home Office “fact-sheet” on the Desistence and Disengagement programme contains eight pieces of “key information”.
But it omits the really key bit – that the programme has never been evaluated. In other words, we do not know if it works.
The same is true of the Healthy Identity Interventions course. Although the Ministry of Justice conducted a “process evaluation”, to check the pilot version was being run properly, we will not know for another two years if it is achieving results.
So, these schemes, like many other offender behaviour projects, are, in essence, experimental.
Some say the only way of knowing if they are any good is to try them out. Others argue the risks of doing that are too high, pointing to the once-flagship Sex Offender Treatment Programme, which was used for 25 years until research showed that it increased the likelihood of reoffending.
Rehabilitating convicted terrorists is as complex and challenging as it gets – but a little more openness and honesty is required about the methods that are being used.
A man who recently went through the same Desistence and Disengagement programme as Khan says the London Bridge attacker “shouldn’t have been let out of prison”.
The man – who asked to remain anonymous – was acquitted of terror charges but was required to wear an electronic tag.
Speaking to Sima Kotecha on BBC Radio 4’s Today programme, he said: “I had a mentor who came to see me at least twice a week.
“As time went on the authorities saw a change within myself.”
Asked why such mentoring worked for him but not for Khan, the man said: “I wanted to make a change.
“Other people may think that [terror] is the only route because they’ve been radicalised and that’s all they know.”
He added that “anybody can manipulate” when asked whether people could convince their mentors that they have moved away from extremism.
He said: “I don’t know his character, but anybody can manipulate.”
Khan, 28, was arrested in December 2010 and sentenced in 2012 to indeterminate detention for public protection with a minimum jail term of eight years, having pleaded guilty to preparing terrorist acts.
He had been part of an al-Qaeda inspired group that considered attacks in the UK, including at the London Stock Exchange.
In 2013 the Court of Appeal quashed the sentence, replacing it with a 16-year fixed term, and ordered Khan to serve at least half this – eight years – behind bars.
Since his release from prison in December 2018, Khan had been living in Stafford and was required to wear a GPS tag.
Khan was armed with two knives and was wearing a fake suicide vest during the attack at Fishmongers’ Hall in the City of London on Friday.
He was tackled by members of the public, including ex-offenders from the conference, before he was shot dead by police.
Porter ‘acted instinctively’
Among those praised for their bravery during the attack was a porter – known as Lukasz – who tried to fight Khan at Fishmongers’ Hall.
He issued a statement through Scotland Yard on Tuesday, saying that contrary to some reports, he had used a pole to tackle Khan while someone else used a narwhal tusk.
“The man attacked me, after which he left the building,” he said. “A number of us followed him out but I stopped at the bollards of the bridge. I had been stabbed and was later taken to hospital to be treated.”
He said he was “thankful” that he had now returned home.
“When the attack happened, I acted instinctively,” he said. “I am now coming to terms with the whole traumatic incident and would like the space to do this in privacy, with the support of my family.”
He wanted to express his condolences to the families who had “lost precious loved ones”, he added, as well as sending his best wishes to “everyone affected by this sad and pointless attack”.
Two women were also injured in the attack. They remain in a stable condition in hospital.
Middlesex have re-signed Afghanistan spinner Mujeeb Ur Rahman for next season’s Twenty20 Blast campaign.
The 18-year-old took seven wickets in 10 games last season and will be available for all 14 of their group stage matches in 2020.
Mujeeb made his debut for his country at the age of 16 and featured in this year’s World Cup.
“I enjoyed my time at Middlesex so much, so I am very pleased to be coming back,” he said.
Meanwhile, the club have awarded England’s World Cup-winning captain Eoin Morgan a testimonial year in 2020.
The 33-year-old made his debut for the county’s first XI in 2005.
Jose Mourinho has been appointed Tottenham manager after the sacking of Mauricio Pochettino on Tuesday.
Former Chelsea and Manchester United boss Mourinho has signed a contract until the end of the 2022-23 season.
“The quality in both the squad and the academy excites me,” said the 56-year-old Portuguese. “Working with these players is what has attracted me.”
Spurs chairman Daniel Levy said: “In Jose we have one of the most successful managers in football.”
Tottenham reached the Champions League final last season under Pochettino, but lost 2-0 to Liverpool in Madrid.
The Argentine, who was appointed in May 2014, did not win a trophy in his time in charge of the north London club, with Spurs’ last silverware being the League Cup in 2008.
Levy said Mourinho has “a wealth of experience, can inspire teams and is a great tactician”.
“He has won honours at every club he has coached,” he added. “We believe he will bring energy and belief to the dressing room.”
Mourinho still has a home in London and won three Premier League titles – in 2005, 2006 and 2015 – as well as one FA Cup in two spells at Chelsea.
Having taken over at Manchester United in May 2016, he won the Europa League and Carabao Cup with them in 2017.
Mourinho was sacked by the Old Trafford club in December 2018, with the club 19 points behind league leaders Liverpool, and had not managed another side before joining Spurs.
He has also previously managed Portuguese side Porto, where he won the Champions League in 2004.
At Italian club Inter Milan, Mourinho won a league, cup and Champions League treble in 2010 and was named Fifa’s world coach of the year, while he led Spanish team Real Madrid to the La Liga title in 2012.
He takes over a Spurs side that are without a win in their past five games and have slipped to 14th in the Premier League, 20 points behind leaders Liverpool after just 12 matches.
Tottenham Hotspur Supporters’ Trust had said “many fans thought Poch had earned the right” to try to turn around the side’s form and that “there are questions that must be asked of the board”.
Following Mourinho’s appointment, it said it had “concerns about how Jose and our club’s executive board will work together”.
It added: “The club must ensure it does not find itself in the same position in two or three years’ time, and we need to hear from the executive board what the long-term thinking behind this appointment is.”
Mourinho’s first match in charge is a trip to West Ham United on Saturday (12:30 GMT kick-off).
Spurs go to Manchester United on 4 December, and host another of Mourinho’s former teams – Chelsea – on 22 December.
Mourinho has turned down a number of managerial opportunities, including in China, Spain and Portugal, since leaving Old Trafford.
BBC sports editor Dan Roan
Spurs have never hired a manager as expensive or demanding as Mourinho, nor spent the kind of money on players that he became accustomed to at clubs such as Real Madrid and Manchester United.
But Spurs have come a long way in recent years under Pochettino. They have a new £1bn stadium and training ground, and spent four successive seasons in the Champions League.
They now have a European pedigree, and a hugely talented squad.
Mourinho has been out of the game for almost a year but retained a home in London.
His tribulations at Manchester United saw him lose his ‘Special One’ status, but his many achievements in the game still command widespread respect.
An “angry pig” confronted engineers in a London street, delaying their repair of a burst water main before it was led away with a bag of crisps.
The pipe burst on Lamberts Road, Surbiton, damaging nearby railway equipment, which caused train delays.
Thames Water said their efforts to reach a valve to cut the water were initially hindered by “a large pig” which was “acting aggressively”.
It is not known what flavour crisps were used to lead it away.
Damage caused by the flooding of tracks and signalling equipment meant limited trains have been able to run along the line.
Disruption is currently expected to last until 16:00 GMT although Network Rail said engineers were carrying out inspections.
Thames Water said engineers “were quickly on site” to deal with the burst 120cm (48 in) pipe, but they had been unable to initially carry out the work because of the pig, which is thought to be someone’s pet.
A police ban on Extinction Rebellion protests in London last month was unlawful, High Court judges have ruled.
The Metropolitan Police imposed the ban, which prevented two or more people from the group taking part in protests, under the Public Order Act.
But judges have ruled that police had no power to do this because the law did not cover “separate assemblies”.
Activists say the police could now face claims for false imprisonment from “potentially hundreds” of protesters.
The Met said it would “carefully consider” the ruling.
The protests cost £24m to police and led to 1,828 arrests, with 165 people charged with offences, the Met says.
During the court hearing, the force had argued that the ban was the only way to tackle widespread disruption.
Announcing their judgement, however, Lord Justice Dingemans and Mr Justice Chamberlain ruled in favour of Extinction Rebellion.
Lord Justice Dingemans said: “Separate gatherings, separated both in time and by many miles, even if co-ordinated under the umbrella of one body, are not a public assembly within the meaning of… the Act.
“The XR [Extinction Rebellion] autumn uprising intended to be held from October 14 to 19 was not therefore a public assembly… therefore the decision to impose the condition was unlawful because there was no power to impose it under… the Act.”
The judges noted that there are powers within that act which may be used lawfully to “control future protests which are deliberately designed to ‘take police resources to breaking point”‘.
During 10 days of climate change protests last month, activists shut down areas around Parliament and the Bank of England, and targeted London City Airport.
Police had previously warned protesters to keep demonstrations in Trafalgar Square, or risk arrest – before issuing a city-wide ban on 14 October, under Section 14 of the Public Order Act.
The court was told that the ban was issued on the same day as a message posted online by London activists.
It told protesters to adopt the “be water” tactics used by demonstrators in Hong Kong.
“Be water, crowds split up into fast moving groups and pairs, that network via phones,” it said.
“You gather at particular spots in large numbers, until the police response building then you move to a new disruptive site.”
The ban was lifted four days later, with officers saying that it was no longer necessary because demonstrations had ended.
BBC home affairs correspondent Daniel Sandford
This was a radical tactic adopted by the Metropolitan Police on 14 October – banning all future Extinction Rebellion protests across London for several days.
But it has backfired. No police force likes to have their actions described as “unlawful”.
Today’s High Court ruling takes away from officers the ability to impose a city-wide ban of future protests, which means demonstrators wanting to be “like water” – where they split into fast-moving groups – will be difficult to control if they are trying to disrupt a whole city.
So police will have to deal with what is in front of them.
If a specific protest in a specific place gets out of hand they will be able to close it down, but it will have to be a decision made by an officer on the spot, and not by someone sitting in a police station worrying about what protests may happen the next day.
Responding to Wednesday’s ruling, Extinction Rebellion UK tweeted “we won’t be silenced”.
Green Party peer Jenny Jones – who was among those to bring the legal challenge – described the ruling as “historic” and criticised ministers for speaking out in favour of the ban.
Met Assistant Commissioner Nick Ephgrave said the decision to impose the ban had been “reasonable and proportionate” and “was not taken lightly”.
He added that the police “would not and cannot ban protest” and that the ruling was made specifically on whether officers could arrest demonstrators for assembling in central London.
“There is no criticism from me of the decision to impose the condition, which was made with good intent and based upon the circumstances confronting the command team at the time,” he said.
“It did in fact result in the reduction of the disruption. Nevertheless, this case highlights that policing demonstrations like these, within the existing legal framework, can be challenging.”
What does Extinction Rebellion want?
Extinction Rebellion’s legal victory follows two weeks of protests in the UK last month.
The group (XR for short) wants governments to declare a “climate and ecological emergency” and take immediate action to address climate change.
It describes itself as an international “non-violent civil disobedience activist movement”.
Launched in 2018, organisers say it has groups willing to take action in dozens of countries.
It uses an hourglass inside a circle as its logo, to represent time running out for many species.
London Fire Brigade chief Dany Cotton has welcomed a critical report on the Grenfell tower fire, but said that the building “failed spectacularly”.
Inquiry chairman Sir Martin Moore-Bick said the absence of a plan to evacuate the tower was a “major omission” by the LFB and more lives could have been saved had the “stay-put” policy been abandoned sooner.
A dentist whose patient bled to death when she had five teeth removed has been suspended for misconduct.
Tushar Kantibhai Patel, of Purley, south London, operated on the woman, known as Patient A, despite her telling him she was taking an anti-clotting drug for a rare blood disorder.
The General Dental Council found he should have sought further advice prior to carrying out treatment.
Patient A died in July 2017 from severe bleeding from her mouth.
She had gone to Mr Patel who had removed her teeth in order to be fitted with dentures.
On 18 July 2017 she had five teeth extracted but that evening was admitted to the emergency unit at King’s College Hospital, London, with severe bleeding from her mouth.
This was stopped by gauze, pressure and local anaesthetic and she was advised not to rinse for 24 hours before being discharged.
But she collapsed at home early the next day after the bleeding in her mouth resumed.
She was taken by ambulance to the hospital where she died the following day.
A subsequent inquest found the cause of death was haemorrhage from tooth extraction site, brought on by Warfarin (anti-clotting drug) treatment and dental extraction.
Her dental records showed no bleeding risk assessment was carried out at any of her five appointments with Patel, who had also failed to record any discussions about her complex medical history.
Patel, a dentist of 30 years, admitted to all the allegations, and expressed his “sincere remorse” over Patient A’s death.
It was found that since the death he had undertaken a self-audit of 15 extraction cases, reported to a supervisor on a monthly basis as well as observed the management of medically compromised dental patients at a hospital.
His suspension will run for 12 months.
Oxford and Cambridge universities have been criticised for the lack of students from black and minority ethnic backgrounds.
Both institutions are now admitting more non-white students.
Oxford has this year reported a record proportion of students from ethnic minorities, but black students form a small minority.
Skai Campbell, from south-east London, recently got into Oxford to study biology.
We followed him as he packed up his belongings and made the journey to Oxford for the start of his four-year course.
Video Journalist: Paul Murphy-Kasp
Extinction Rebellion activists intending to continue protesting in central London “must” go to Trafalgar Square or risk arrest, police have warned.
Police enforced a Section 14 notice to stop “serious disruption” to communities, after officers removed those camped out in Westminster.
Police have made 541 arrests over the two days of protests.
The prime minister has described the activists as “uncooperative crusties”.
But campaigner and TV presenter Chris Packham said they are “the concerned people of the world.”
Extinction Rebellion activists are protesting in cities around the world, including Berlin, Paris, Amsterdam and Sydney, and are calling for urgent action on global climate and wildlife emergencies.
Protesters say they are occupying 11 sites in central London and people have travelled from across the UK to take part in the demonstrations.
Activists glued themselves to a government department and to the underside of a lorry outside another.
A protester who attached himself to the top of a trailer with a bike lock for more than 28 hours in Trafalgar Square was arrested and removed from the area by five police officers.
The Metropolitan Police said at 21:30 BST on Tuesday there had been 541 total arrests over the two days, including 261 on Tuesday.
Police have enforced a Section 14 Notice of the Public Order Act 1986, forcing those who wish to continue protesting to move to the pedestrianised area around Nelson’s column in Trafalgar square.
Anyone suspected of breaching the condition – which has no time limit – could be arrested and prosecuted, police said.
A Section 14 order allows the police to impose conditions on a static protest – where campaigners are gathered in one place, rather than marching.
To impose the condition, police must have evidence that serious disruption is being caused to communities.
Activists have attached themselves to the underside of a lorry, which is blocking the road outside the Home Office.
The vehicle is parked on Marsham Street, where hundreds of protesters set up camp overnight. One activist climbed on top of the lorry and set up a tent.
There was a large police presence in the area on Tuesday, with pictures showing officers removing activists from the lorry.
Protesters have also glued themselves to the Department for Transport building – a tactic used in similar protests in April.
Two activists have attached themselves to the doors of the building, while others demonstrate outside.
Meanwhile, a group have placed 800 potted trees outside Parliament, in Old Palace Yard, as they call on the government to plant billions of trees across the UK.
Trees have been dedicated to MPs, and protesters hope they will use them to reforest the country.
Sean Clay, 36, from Newcastle, told the BBC: “Planting trees would go a long way to restore the habitats we have lost as well as absorbing carbon emissions.”
Asked about Boris Johnson’s description of demonstrators, Packham told the BBC’s Victoria Derbyshire programme: “I was there yesterday. I met farmers, I met teachers, I met scientists, I met lawyers, I met grandparents, I met mothers and fathers, and I met children.
“These are the concerned people of the world.”
Mr Johnson had suggested while attending a book launch on Monday that the demonstrators should abandon their “hemp-smelling bivouacs” and stop blocking roads.
Protester Claudia Fisher, 57, from Brighton said campaigners would like to discuss their views with the prime minister.
Responding to his description of activists as “uncooperative crusties”, Ms Fisher said: “We are a little bit crusty, I’ll put my hands up to it, after a night sleeping out on the grounds of Whitehall, but we’re not uncooperative.
“We’re actually very co-operative. We… would really like to hear what he has to say, and we’d really like him to… hear what we have to say.”
John Curran, a 49-year-old former detective sergeant for the Metropolitan Police, was one of the protesters who camped overnight.
Mr Curran, who has a three-year-old daughter, says he was arrested while protesting with Extinction Rebellion in April, and is willing to be arrested again.
He said: “Clearly there is some frustration (for the police) that they probably have better things to be doing, and I agree, but the responsibility for that must lie with the government.
“Take action, and we won’t have to be here.”
Activists camped at Smithfield Market overnight, but say they allowed traders to operate.
‘This is a last resort’
By Becky Morton, BBC News
There is a festival atmosphere in Westminster as Extinction Rebellion activists emerge from their tents to stage a second day of protests in central London.
The roads around Parliament – normally full with traffic – are instead dotted with encampments of tents, gazebos and makeshift food points, where hundreds of protesters from across the country spent the night.
Volunteers serve bowls of porridge from a truck, while others bang drums and join sing-alongs.
Read Becky’s full report here.
In an update at 17:44 BST on Tuesday, Transport for London (Tfl) said road closures included the Strand in both directions between Lancaster Place and Trafalgar Square; Trafalgar Square itself and Whitehall in both directions.
Also closed are Parliament Square; Marsham Street; Horseferry Road; and Millbank in both directions between Parliament Square and Horseferry Road.
All bridges remain open, however there is no access from Westminster Bridge into Parliament Square.
Extinction Rebellion claims protests in the capital will be five times bigger than similar events in April, which saw more than 1,100 people were arrested.
What is Extinction Rebellion?
2025year when the group aims for zero carbon emissions
298,000followers on Facebook
1,130people arrested over April’s London protests
2018year the group was founded
Source: BBC Research
Extinction Rebellion (XR for short) wants governments to declare a “climate and ecological emergency” and take immediate action to address climate change.
It describes itself as an international “non-violent civil disobedience activist movement”.
Extinction Rebellion was launched in 2018 and organisers say it now has groups willing to take action in dozens of countries.
In April, the group held a large demonstration in London that brought major routes in the city to a standstill.
Aleksandar Mitrovic and Tom Cairney both struck twice as Fulham cruised to victory against 10-man Reading to go fourth in the Championship.
Cairney curled in the opener before John Swift was sent off for two bookings after just 20 minutes.
Mitrovic struck twice before the half-hour mark and Cairney grabbed his second with a fine lob.
Reading’s Yakou Meite curled in a 25-yard effort with a minute left, but it was little consolation for the well-beaten Royals, who drop a place to 21st.
The hosts had not lost in six league and play-off games at home to the west Londoners – a run stretching back to when both clubs were in the Premier League in 2008.
But the Whites took control at the Madejski early on when midfielder Cairney grabbed his third goal in three games.
Things quickly got worse for the hosts as Swift, already booked for a foul on Bobby Reid, made a rash challenge on Denis Odoi and was dismissed.
Fulham’s top scorer Mitrovic then helped himself to his sixth and seventh goals of the campaign, with two close-range finishes in three minutes well before the break.
Cairney added his second in fine style, lifting the ball over goalkeeper Rafael Cabral from 35 yards to put Fulham 4-0 up with more than 20 minutes left.
Meite’s fine late strike denied the visitors a clean sheet, but the win extended their unbeaten run to five games.
Reading boss Jose Gomes told BBC Radio Berkshire: “It was a very tough night for us.
“We planned the game well and I thought we could get a good result
“We knew we faced a Premier League squad, with a lot of good players.
“After one mistake we conceded a goal and with one player less it was very difficult to turn the result, considering the quality Fulham has.”
Fulham boss Scott Parker told BBC Radio London: “I’m pleased to come away from tonight with an outstanding performance.
“I felt we were first-class from the minute it started until the end, against a resilient side. We moved the ball and were clinical in attack.
“Tom and Aleksandar are going to be key for us, alongside everyone.
“Defensively as well, we worked together as a unit and we are strong in that sense. Confidence is high and the lads are in a good place.”